Types of hydroelectric power plants
1. Impoundment hydroelectric power plants
In Inpoundment hydroelectric power plant dams are build across a large river and stores the energy in the form of gravitational potential energy. A very large amount of water can be stored in this way. Besides the dam provide a large amount of power for a long time.
2. Pumped storage hydroelectricity
Pumped storage hydro electric plants are designed to provide power during peak loads. When the load on the plant or requirement for power is very less (example:at night) the excess power generated can be utilized to pump water from the tail race to slightly higher basin. During the peak load time this stored water releases through the turbine and enhances the capability factor of the system.
3. Diversion or Run of the river hydro electricity
Run of the river hydroelectric plant lacks a reservoir. Because the plant generates electricity directly from the flowing water in a river. The water flows and passes through the turbine and produces electricity. One of the advantage of this type of hydroelectric power plant is, it do not require a dam. So the installation cost is comparatively less.
4. Tide power hydroelectricity
Moon and earth causes tides in the oceans. When the sea level rises water enters in to the barrage. When the sea level decreases water flows back to the sea. This to and fro motion causes the turbine fitted at the barrage gate to run and produce electricity. Read more
5. Underground hydroelectric plants
This type of power plant is only applicable at river where a waterfall or mountain lake is available. Large natural height difference can be generated by the use of two water ways, water fall or mountain lake and a lower sink. Underground tunnel is build for the flow of water between higher sink to lower sink.
6. Microhydropower plants
If a hydroelectric power plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts, those power plants are known as microhydropower plants